Effective Java

Chapter2 Create and Destroy Object

1 use static factory method to replace constructor


  1. has name to describe the return object.
  2. don’t need create a new object every times.
  3. can return any subclass.
  4. change the return object according to the parameter.
  5. class returned by method needn’t exist when write class including the static factory method.


  1. class cannot be extended, if it doesn’t have a public or protected constructor.
  2. programmer cannot find a static factory method.

static method idiomatic name:

  1. from - type conversion
  2. of - polymerization
  3. valueOf - conversion
  4. instance or getInstance - return according to the parameter
  5. create or newInstance - return new object according to the parameter
  6. gettype - return type object like getInstance
  7. newtype - return new type object like newInstance
  8. type - short version of getType or newType

2 consider using a builder when the constructor has multiple parameters

  1. lombok @Builder
  2. static class Builder<T extends Builder<T>>

3 use private constructor or enum class to strengthen singleton attribute

// 1 attacked by AccessibleObject.setAccessible
public class Singleton{
    public static final instance = new Singleton();

// 2 consider use transient key word and readResolve method when need serialize
public class Singleton{
    private static final instance = new Singleton();
    public static Singleton getInstance() {return instance;}

// 3 cannot extend superclass
public enum Singleton{

// 4 double check lock
public class Singleton{
    private Singleton(){}
    private static final instance;

    public static Singleton getInstance() {
        if(instance == null){
                if(instance == null){
                    instance = new Singleton();

        return instance;

4 use private constructor to strengthen the ability to be non-instantiable

let utility class which only has static methods and fields have a private constructor to avoid instantiating

public class UtilityClass{
    private UtilityClass(){
        throw new AssetionError();

5 prioritize dependency injection to bring in resources

static utility class and Singleton class are not suitable for a class that needs to reference the underlying resource.

simply model: bring in resources to the constructor when create a new instance.

6 avoid creating unnecessary objects


String s = new String("bikini"); // DON'T DD THiS!
String s = "bikini";             // RIGHT

creating a class Pattern costs much, so should create a static Pattern when use regular expression repeatedly

consider autoboxing when use basic types.

but don’t need to create a object pool for every class, just for high cost class such as database connection pool.

7 delete expired object’s reference

when use array to implement a stack, queue and so on, attention to delete reference in reference after poping

use WeakHashMap to cache or record callback

8 avoid using finalizer and cleaner

finalizer: Object’s finalize method never use

cleaner: implement AutoCloseable interface use as a safe net

9 try-with-resources has priority over try-finally

try (InputStream in = new FileInputStream(src)){


InputStream in = new FileInputStream(src);
try {
} finally{

if error occurred in physical devices, close method will throw exception too.

Chapter 3 General Methods For All Objects

10 compliance with common conventions when override equals method

  1. class’s every instance is essentially the only.
  2. class needn’t provide ’logical equality’ function.
  3. superclass has overrode equals, subclass can reuse, such as AbstractSet and AbstractList.
  4. class is private or default, its equals method will never be used.

equals method implement equivalence relation

  1. reflexive x.equals(x) return true
  2. symmetric x.equals(y) == y.equals(x)
  3. transitive if x.equals(y) return true and y.equals(z) return true, x.equals(z) return true
  4. consistent without changing, x.equals(y) should be always same
  5. non-nullity x.equals(null) return false

write high-quality equals method:

  1. use == to check if the object is this object’s reference
  2. use instanceof to check if parameter is right type
  3. cast parameter to right type
  4. check every significant fields, basic data types except double and float use == to compare; double and float use static method Float::compare and Double::compare; array objects use Arrays::equals; other objects use Objects::equals


  1. always override hashcode when override equals
  2. don’t attempt to let equals too smart
  3. don’t change Object parameter in equals’ declaration

can use Google’s open source framework AutoValue to generate equals method

11 always override hashcode when override equals

Object standard:

  1. hashcode should return the same value, as long as fields used in equals method don’t change.
  2. hashcode must be same, if equals return true.
  3. hashcode needn’t be different, if equals return false.

12 always override toString

default toString method return class name@hash code

in practical applications toString method should return all information worthing attention